Characteristics of a Child
|“I’m Three”||“I’m Four”||“I’m Five”|
|Physical||Good balance. Jumps with both feet. Small muscles beginning to develop.||Pushing limits. Hits. Throws. Runs away. Better balance. Small muscle coordination fair. Urge for bodily contact.||Good balance. Good small muscle coordination. Less energetic. Hops, skips. More poised. Shows definite hand preference.|
|Mental||Agreeable. Likes new words. Interest spans 4-8 minutes. Question “why?” Developing larger vocabulary.||Uses words to solve problems. Loves nonsense words. Imaginative. More interested in children than adults. Defies family. Interest span 12-15 minutes.||Self-critical, realistic, reliable, stable, well adjusted. Talks constantly. Name-calling. Interest span 15-18 minutes. Remarkable memory.|
|Social||Imitative. Loves to conform. Beginning to share. People are important. Beginning to play cooperatively. Enjoys conversations with adults.||Language shocking. Tells tall tales. Plays best with peers, gang play. Rough, selfish, boastful. May share with a friend.||Hard to share. Family is center of world. Friendly, out-going. Enjoys out doors. Cooperative play.|
|Emotional||Sympathetic, friendly, cooperative. May boss imaginary playmate. Increased self-control. Uses verbal threats. Beginning to see relationships.||Tests self and others. Unstable, explosive. Physically and verbally aggressive. Experiments. Curious. Asks “Why?”||Satisfied with self. More control. Able to start and finish task. Serious. Curious. Questions and attempts answers or reasons.|
|Toys||Dough, play clay, balls, pegboards, puzzles. Mastering large muscle skills—jumping, climbing.||Carpentry, gardening, block play. Using large muscle skills, Wheel toys. Scooters.||Has developed block play. Uses scissors and crayons. Daring feats using large muscles.|
|Play||Imaginative, Dress-up, Dolls.||Playing out experiences and concepts. Group play. Developing leadership.||Realistic. Distinguishes between fantasy and reality.|
|Stories||Enjoys books. Talks about pictures.||Enjoys nonsense rhymes. Likes to tell tall tales. Makes up own stories.||Makes up own stories, poetry and songs.|
|Blocks||Hauling, building.||Experimentation. Dramatic and social play.|
|Clay, play dough||Use hands or tools. Roll, toss on table, pound, pinch, squeeze. No need to make anything.||Sensory experience. Release tension. Creative play. Experimentation. Dramatic and social play.|
|Climber||Climbing, imaginative play.||Big muscle development. Sensory experience. Dramatic and social play.|
|Crayons, markers||Scribble, cover one color with another. Make a design.||Recognize colors. Fine motor development. Creative activity.|
|Paint||Dip, press, paint. Does not need to be anything.||Manipulative activity. Enjoying colors. Mixing, identifying colors. Creative expression.|
|Scissors and glue||Glue colored paper at random or in design. Cut random shapes. Make collage.||Manipulative activity. Fine motor development. Creative play. Recognize color and shape.|
|Play house, dolls, dress-up clothes||Imaginative play. Ideas change quickly.||Imitate home and family. Dramatic and social play.|
|Sand||Dry-sift, shake, pour, wet mold dig, build.||Sensory experience. Solitary, parallel or social play.|
|Water||Blow bubbles. Sail boats. Washing dolls, clothes, other toys. Pour. Mix colors.||Relaxation. Sensory experience. Concepts of sink and float. Enjoyment.|
|Tricycle, scooter, wagon||Riding, pulling, pushing.||Social and dramatic play. Big muscle development.|
|Wood working tools||Sawing, pounding, hammering, construction.||Big muscle development. Coordination. Creative activity. Release tension. Satisfy need for noise and attention.|
Child Check Services
Learn when a child should be referred for possible evaluation by the Anchorage School District to determine whether a child may need special education services. You may also want to speak with the teacher and your pediatrician if you have concerns. These evaluation services are provided by the Anchorage School District. For more information, vist:http://www.asdk12.org/depts/sped/preschool/ChildCheck/index.asp
Age 3 Developmental Check List
- By age three your child should be able to:
- Run without falling very often.
- Walk up and down stairs.
- Imitate drawing a circle (even if it is not quite round or closed)
- Build a tower of at least 8 blocks.
- Point to 6 parts of the body (hair, nose, eyes, feet, hands, mouth) when
- Name several objects (like chair, box)
- Follow simple directions.
- Count to 3.
- Repeat simple songs or rhymes.
- Match colors and shapes.
- Put on some clothes without help.
- Speak to most adults and be understood.
Age 4 Developmental Check List
By age four your child should be able to:
- Stand on one foot for a few seconds without falling. Catch and throw a ball.
- Cut with scissors.
- Hold crayons with fingers not fist.
- Ask “how” and “why” questions.
- Answer questions like: “What do you do when you are hungry?”
- Speak in sentences of about 5 words.
- Recognize and name 3 or 4 colors.
- Enjoy playing with other children.
- Dress themselves completely (with help on pullover shirts and sweaters).
- Count to 5.
Age 5 Developmental Check List
- By age five your child should be able to:
- Climb a ladder to a slide.
- Hop on one foot for a short distance.
- Draw a simple house and person.
- Cut with scissors on a straight line.
- Count five objects.
- Copy a picture of a square.
- Explain what objects are used for (example: a knife is used for cutting).
- Understand the concept of “yesterday “, “today” and “tomorrow”.
- Understand words like “on”, “under” and “behind”.
- Match colors and shapes.
- Go to the bathroom without help.
Red Flags! Signs of Possible Problems
- Rubbing eyes or complaints that eyes hurt.
- Holding things close to see them.
- Red or watery eyes.
- Turned or tilted head when looking at things.
- Crossing one or both eyes.
- Trouble or not seeing things that are far away.
- Having lots of ear aches.
- Seems to listen with only one ear.
- Talking very loud or very soft.
- Seems sad or cries for no reason.
- Destroys objects without reason.
- Purposely hurts others or self.
Please remember that the range of normal development is different for every child. Any concerns or questions about physical, emotional or developmental growth please discuss this with the lead teacher. They can refer you to services and provide guidance and support.
Activity and Theme Ideas:
www.adfg.state.ak.us/pubs/notebook Alaska Wildlife Resource
www.hwtears.com/ Handwriting without Tears
www.2think.org/learners.shtml Lucy Calkins – Raising Lifelong Learners
www.michaelgurian.com/ The Wonder of Boys, The Wonder of Girls & More
Protecting the Gift, Keeping our Children & Teenagers Safe & Parents Sane, Gavin De Becker
www.eed.state.ak.us/Alaskan_Schools/Charter/ Charter School Options ASD
www.asdk12.org/Parents/choices/alt3.asp#seminar Alternative School and Programs ASD
Books Sources, Games and Toys, Supplies:
www.carolina.com/home.do Science Supplies
www.kaplanco.com/index.asp School Supplies